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【TOEFL iBT】

寫作測驗

 

Task

測驗時間

文章字數

題型

1

20分鐘

150~225字

整合式題型 Integrated Writing

先看一篇文章在聽一段說明或對話後,寫一篇相關的文章。

2

30分鐘

至少300字

獨立式題型 Independent Writing

針對主題闡述自己的論點。

評分標準

 
TOEFL iBT的分數分聽、說、讀、寫四個項目計分。學生在這四個項目的應用能力可作為學生是否能適應美國教育環境的參考指標。
◎TOEFL iBT 配分方式
項目
分數(級距)
層級
閱讀
Reading
0~30
Low(0~14)
Intermediate (15-21)
High (22-30)
聽力
Listening
0~30
Low(0~14)
Intermediate (15-21)
High (22-30)
寫作
Writing
0~30(分為5級分)
Weak (0-9)
Limited (10-17)
Fair (18-25)
Good (26-30)
口說
Speaking
0~30(分為5級分)
Limited (1-16)
Fair (17-23)
Good (24-30)
總計
0-120
◎TOEFL iBT寫作評分標準 轉載自www.ets.org
【整合式題型 Integrated Writing】

級分

說 明

5

A response at this level successfully selects the important information from the lecture and coherently and accurately presents this information in relation to the relevant information presented in the reading. The response is well organized, and occasional language errors that are present do not result in inaccurate or imprecise presentation of content or connections.

能從聽講中成功獲取重要資訊,並能與文章內容做連結,連貫並正確地呈現訊息。寫作內容組織良好,雖偶有語言上的錯誤,但不至於造成對內容或兩者連結有不正確或不精準的描述。

4

A response at this level is generally good in selecting the important information from the lecture and in coherently and accurately presenting this information in relation to the relevant information in the reading, but it may have minor omission, inaccuracy, vagueness, or imprecision of some content from the lecture or in connection to points made in the reading. A response is also scored at this level if it has more frequent or noticeable minor language errors, as long as such usage and grammatical structures do not result in anything more than an occasional lapse of clarity or in the connection of ideas.

雖在聽講或文章內容的連結上有些許遺漏、不精確或模糊的狀況,但大致上能從聽講中獲取重要資訊,並能與文章內容做連結,連貫並正確地呈現訊息。在語言的使用上有較頻繁或明顯的小錯誤,但文法架構和用法的錯誤僅造成偶爾語意不清或觀點連結不佳。

3

A response at this level contains some important information from the lecture and conveys some relevant connection to the reading, but it is marked by one or more of the following:
●Although the overall response is definitely oriented to the task, it conveys only vague, global, unclear, or somewhat imprecise connection of the points made in the lecture to points made in the reading.
●The response may omit one major key point made in the lecture.
●Some key points made in the lecture or the reading, or connections between the two, may be incomplete, inaccurate, or imprecise.
●Errors of usage and/or grammar may be more frequent or may result in noticeably vague expressions or obscured meanings in conveying ideas and connections.

能從聽講中獲取部分重要資訊,並與文章產生些許連結,但有以下的缺點:
 ■ 寫作雖合乎主題,但聽講的重點與文章的連結模糊、籠統、不清楚或不準確。
 ■ 寫作遺漏聽講的關鍵資訊。
 ■ 某部份文章、聽力內容或兩者連結可能不夠完整或明確。
 ■ 用語或(和)文法錯誤頻繁,導致表達模糊,或傳達觀點和連結時意義扭曲。

2

A response at this level contains some relevant information from the lecture, but is marked by significant language difficulties or by significant omission or inaccuracy of important ideas from the lecture or in the connections between the lecture and the reading; a response at this level is marked by one or more of the following:
●The response significantly misrepresents or completely omits the overall connection between the lecture and the reading.
●The response significantly omits or significantly misrepresents important points made in the lecture.
●The response contains language errors or expressions that largely obscure connections or meaning at key junctures, or that would likely obscure understanding of key ideas for a reader not already familiar with the reading and the lecture.

能從聽講內容獲取部份相關資訊,但有顯著之語言問題,針對聽講內容或聽講與文章間的連結,資訊嚴重遺漏或重要觀念理解不正確。寫作有以下缺點:
 ■ 寫作明顯扭曲或完全遺漏聽講和文章間的連結。
 ■ 寫作明顯遺漏或明顯扭曲演講的重點。
 ■ 寫作之語言錯誤或表達方式混淆聽講和文章的連結或主要連結處的意義,或者可能造成不熟悉該聽講或文章內容的讀者誤解重要觀念。

1

A response at this level is marked by one or more of the following:
●The response provides little or no meaningful or relevant coherent content from the lecture.
●The language level of the response is so low that it is difficult to derive meaning.

寫作有以下缺點:
 ■ 寫作提供極少或沒有與聽講相關或有意義的內容。
 ■ 寫作語言程度過低,造成理解極度困難。

0

A response at this level merely copies sentences from the reading, rejects the topic or is otherwise not connected to the topic, is written in a foreign language, consists of keystroke characters, or is blank.

寫作抄襲文章句子、離題或與主題無關、以其他外語書寫或空白。

【獨立式題型 Independent Writing】

級分

說 明

5

An essay at this level largely accomplishes all of the following:
●effectively addresses the topic and task
●is well organized and well developed, using clearly appropriate explanations, exemplifications, and/or details
●displays unity, progression, and coherence
●displays consistent facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word choice, and idiom, though it may have minor lexical or grammatical errors

 ■ 寫作內容符合主題和任務。
 ■ 寫作組織架構良好,解說、舉證、細節說明清楚妥切。
 ■ 文章具整體性、發展性以及連貫性。
 ■ 語言運用有一致性,句法有變化,用字及片語選擇合宜,但在字彙或文法上有些許錯誤。

4

An essay at this level largely accomplishes all of the following:
●addresses the topic and task well, though some points may not be fully elaborated
●is generally well organized and well developed, using appropriate and sufficient explanations, exemplifications, and/or details
●displays unity, progression, and coherence, though it may contain occasional redundancy, digression, or unclear connections
●displays facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety and range of vocabulary, though it will probably have occasional noticeable minor errors in structure, word form, or use of idiomatic language that do not interfere with meaning

 ■ 寫作內容符合主題和任務。
 ■ 寫作組織架構良好,解說、舉證、細節說明清楚妥切。
 ■ 文章具整體性、發展性以及連貫性。
 ■ 語言運用有一致性,句法有變化,用字及片語選擇合宜,但在字彙或文法上有些許錯誤。

3

An essay at this level is marked by one or more of the following:
●addresses the topic and task using somewhat developed explanations, exemplifications, and/or details
●displays unity, progression, and coherence, though connection of ideas may be occasionally obscured
●may demonstrate inconsistent facility in sentence formation and word choice that may result in lack of clarity and occasionally obscure meaning
●may display accurate but limited range of syntactic structures and vocabulary

 ■ 運用略有發展的解說、例證、細節來說明主題和任務。
 ■ 文章具整體性、發展性以及連貫性,但是在觀點連接上偶有含糊不清的狀況。
 ■ 因為句子組成和選字上的問題,造成語意不清,偶有妨礙理解的狀況。
 ■ 句法結構和字彙準確但有限。

2

An essay at this level may reveal one or more of the following weaknesses:
●limited development in response to the topic and task
●inadequate organization or connection of ideas
●inappropriate or insufficient exemplifications, explanations, or details to support or illustrate generalizations in response to the task
●a noticeably inappropriate choice of words or word forms
●an accumulation of errors in sentence structure and/or usage

 ■ 針對主題和任務的回應有限。
 ■ 文章缺乏組織與觀點的連結。
 ■ 不正確或不完整的例證、解說或細節。
 ■ 用字不適當或單字形式有誤。
 ■ 句子架構和使用上有許多錯誤。

1

An essay at this level is seriously flawed by one or more of the following weaknesses:
●serious disorganization or underdevelopment
●little or no detail, or irrelevant specifics, or questionable responsiveness to the task
●serious and frequent errors in sentence structure or usage

■ 在組織發展架構上有嚴重的錯誤。
■ 對文章內容的發展少且不完整,對達成任務有很大的問題。
■ 對句子的組成和使用上有嚴重的問題。

0

An essay at this level merely copies words from the topic, rejects the topic, or is otherwise not connected to the topic, is written in a foreign language, consists of keystroke characters, or is blank.

寫作抄襲文章句子、離題或與主題無關、以其他外語書寫或空白。

寫作技巧

 
【整合式題型 Integrated Writing】

貼心提醒

1.

考生應多練習閱讀與聽力,並建議至TOEFL官方網站下載TOEFL iBT Tips。

2.

考生可以到ETS網站或其他ETS TOEFL承辦單位下載閱讀本題型的評分標準。

3.

考生於考試前應注意打字的速度,最好能一分鐘打20個字以上。

4.
建議考生應把握時間,儘可能將聽到或看到的重點記錄下來。
5.
由於寫作測驗中的聽力僅播放一次,所以考生必須專心不要分心。
6.
如何有效分配考試時間:

當您選擇iBT考試,考試中心將會發給您一支鉛筆及筆記紙,讓您可以將重點記錄下來。

步驟
時間
頁面顯示
技巧
1.文章閱讀
3分鐘
* 文章一則
* 計時器
* 仔細閱讀
* 精確筆記

◎當閱讀文章結束後,電腦螢幕將會播放段落聽力並同時出現該題圖片。

步驟
時間
頁面顯示
技巧
2.段落聽力
2~3分鐘
段落圖片
* 仔細聆聽
* 精確筆記

◎當圖片結束後,電腦螢幕將會出現閱讀文章與寫作方框。

步驟
時間
頁面顯示
技巧
3.組織構句&寫作
20分鐘
* 引導寫作&題目
* 文章一則
* 計時器
* 有功能的寫作方框
* 組織構句
(3~4分鐘)
* 寫作
(10~12分鐘)
* 最後確認
(3~4分鐘)
7.
考生應有效地組織構句並於150~225字文章中完整表達。即使文章字數過多並不會扣分,但考生不宜寫太多而導致浪費考試時間。
8.
建議考生文章至少要3~4個段落且每一段落約50字左右。 
9.
考生應留足夠時間來撰寫作文,不宜花超過4分鐘時間來組織構句。
10.
考生最後應留3~4分鐘來確認整篇作文,因為可能有尚未完成的部份需在考試時間結束前完成。

得分秘訣

1.

根據TOEFL的整合式題型說明(Integrated Writing),以下四點可以幫助您獲得好成績:

(1) 切合文章主題
(2) 注重文法的正確性
(3) 注重文章組織結構與連貫性
(4) 多提出支持性的論點

2.

當你仔細閱讀文章後,將會發現題目要問你的是支持還是反對的論點,所以你要專注於聽力題目上。而得高分的關鍵在於如何讓閱讀文章與段落聽力有所關聯。

筆記步驟

1.

考生如何替整合式題型寫作有效地做筆記:

■ 「文章閱讀」與「段落聽力」皆須詳做筆記,並在筆記紙中間畫一條直線分成兩邊。
■ 畫一條水平線於筆記紙上方,使其空間可以寫上標題。
■ 由於英文的閱讀方式是由左至右,所以建議左邊寫「文章閱讀」的筆記,右邊寫「段落聽力」的筆記。
■ 做筆記的同時需擬出文章大綱,列出主要論點,並於其下方列出支持論點,如下:
文章閱讀
段落聽力(圖片)
〔文章主旨〕
〔與文章關聯〕
〔想法/觀點/論點 1〕
〔例證 1〕
〔例證 2〕
〔相關 想法/觀點/論點 1〕
〔例證 1〕
〔例證 2〕
〔想法/觀點/論點 2〕
〔例證 1〕
〔例證 2〕
〔相關 想法/觀點/論點 2〕
〔例證 1〕
〔例證 2〕

2.

在筆記上寫必要的文字會提醒您欲表達的觀點,盡量不要寫無關緊要的贅字。

3.
當你在做「文章閱讀」筆記時需注意:
■ 首先,必須先略讀文章並抓到主要想法與論點;而當你略讀完文章後,必須了解它的重點與關鍵。
■ 寫下文章中每個主要想法與觀點的使用例證。
4.
當你在做「段落聽力」筆記時需注意:
■ 考生須專心聆聽內容,同時把重點記下。
■ 仔細聆聽文章開頭提示來判斷文章為支持或反對論點,並於筆記紙右上方寫下註記。
■ 段落聽力進行中,凡聽到與文章閱讀相關的論點,無論是支持或反對,均直接地註記下來。

【獨立式題型 Independent Writing】

貼心提醒

1.

考生應多練習一些常見的寫作主題,並建議至TOEFL官方網站(www.ETS.org)下載TOEFL iBT Tips。

2.

考生可以到ETS網站或其他ETS TOEFL承辦單位下載閱讀本題型的評分標準。

3.

考生於考試前應注意打字的速度,最好能一分鐘打20個字以上。

4.
如何有效分配考試時間:
步驟
時間
頁面顯示
技巧
1. 閱讀文章主題
2. 組織構句&寫作
30分鐘
* 寫作主題
* 計時器
* 有功能的寫作方框
* 組織構句
(4~5分鐘)
* 寫作
(20~22分鐘)
* 最後確認
(4~5分鐘)
5.
為了節省考試時間,考生於開始寫作時,建議直接將重點或組織構句打在電腦上並運用於段落之中,無須浪費時間打草稿於筆記紙上。
6.
考生應有效地組織構句並於300字文章中完整表達。即使文章字數過多並不會扣分,但考生不宜寫太多而導致浪費考試時間。
7.
建議考生文章至少要3~4個段落且每一段落約70~80字左右。
8.
考生應留足夠時間來撰寫作文,不宜花超過5分鐘時間來組織構句。
9.
考生最後應留5分鐘來確認整篇作文,因為可能有尚未完成的部份需在考試時間結束前完成。

得分秘訣

1.

根據TOEFL的整合式題型說明(Integrated Writing),以下四點可以幫助您獲得好成績:

(1) 切合文章主題
(2) 注重文章組織性與完整性
(3) 注重文章組織結構與連貫性
(4) 注重文法的正確性

2.

一篇好的作文必須切合文章主題,且獲得高分的關鍵在於除了掌握文章主旨外,亦須專注於解釋立場與提供解決方案。

3.
以下為你可能會遇到的兩種題目呈現方式:
■ 討論文章主題/解釋事情原委
考生應該提出意見來支持你的論點。
■ 同意或不同意/支持或反對/選擇A或B
考生應從兩方不同觀點擇一論述,並且從頭到尾需支持此論點,偶爾針對反方給予適時地對照。

作文範例

轉載自 www.ets.org
Directions: These sample tasks in the Writing section measure your ability to write in English in an academic environment. There will be 2 writing tasks.

For the first task in this sampler, you will read a passage and part of a lecture about an academic topic. Then you will write a response to a question that asks you about the relationship between the lecture and the reading passage. Try to answer the question as completely as possible using information from the reading passage and the lecture.
The question does not ask you to express your personal opinion. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage.

For the second task, you will demonstrate your ability to write an essay in response to a question that asks you to express and support your opinion about a topic or issue.
Your essay will be scored on the quality of your writing. This includes the development of your ideas, the organization of your essay, and the quality and accuracy of the language you use to express your ideas.

At the end of the writing section, in this sampler you will find two sample essays for each question, the score they received, and an explanation of how they were scored.

In an actual test, you will be able to take notes while you listen and use your notes to
help you answer the questions.

【整合式題型 Integrated Writing】
Read the following passage and the lecture which follows. In an actual test, you will have 3 minutes to read the passage. Then, answer the question. In the test, you will have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words. Candidates with disabilities may request additional time to read the passage and write the response.
READING PASSAGE

Critics say that current voting systems used in the United States are inefficient and often lead to the inaccurate counting of votes. Miscounts can be especially damaging if an election is closely contested. Those critics would like the traditional systems to be replaced with far more efficient and trustworthy computerized voting systems.
In traditional voting, one major source of inaccuracy is that people accidentally vote for the wrong candidate. Voters usually have to find the name of their candidate on a large sheet of paper containing many names—the ballot—and make a small mark next to that name. People with poor eyesight can easily mark the wrong name. The computerized voting machines have an easy-to-use touch-screen technology: to cast a vote, a voter needs only to touch the candidate’s name on the screen to record a vote for that candidate; voters can even have the computer magnify the name for easier viewing.
Another major problem with old voting systems is that they rely heavily on people to count the votes. Officials must often count up the votes one by one, going through every ballot and recording the vote. Since they have to deal with thousands of ballots, it is almost inevitable that they will make mistakes. If an error is detected, a long and expensive recount has to take place. In contrast, computerized systems remove the possibility of human error, since all the vote counting is done quickly and automatically by the computers.
Finally some people say it is too risky to implement complicated voting technology nationwide. But without giving it a thought, governments and individuals alike trust other complex computer technology every day to be perfectly accurate in banking transactions as well as in the communication of highly sensitive information.


LECTURE TRANSCRIPT

(Narrator) Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about.

(Female professor) While traditional voting systems have some problems, it’s doubtful that computerized voting will make the situation any better. Computerized voting may seem easy for people who are used to computers. But what about people who aren’t? People who can’t afford computers, people who don’t use them on a regular basis—these people will have trouble using computerized voting machines. These voters can easily cast the wrong vote or be discouraged from voting altogether because of fear of technology. Furthermore, it’s true that humans make mistakes when they count up ballots by hand. But are we sure that computers will do a better job? After all, computers are programmed by humans, so “human error” can show up in mistakes in their programs. And the errors caused by these defective programs may be far more serious. The worst a human official can do is miss a few ballots. But an error in a computer program can result in thousands of votes being miscounted or even permanently removed from the record. And in many voting systems, there is no physical record of the votes, so a computer recount in the case of a suspected error is impossible! As for our trust of computer technology for banking and communications, remember one thing: these systems are used daily and they are used heavily. They didn’t work flawlessly when they were first introduced. They had to be improved on and improved on until they got as reliable as they are today. But voting happens only once every two years nationally in the United States and not much more than twice a year in many local areas. This is hardly sufficient for us to develop confidence that computerized voting can be fully trusted.

Question: Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they oppose specific points made in the reading passage.

【獨立式題型 Independent Writing】
Read the question below. In a real test, you will have 30 minutes to plan, write, and revise your essay. Candidates with disabilities may request a time extension. Typically, an effective response will contain a minimum of 300 words.

Question: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

A teacher’s ability to relate well with students is more important than excellent knowledge of the subject being taught.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

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