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英語寫作i助教 > 新聞報導 > 09年高考英語衝刺:機動靈活英語作文勝經
09年高考英語衝刺:機動靈活英語作文勝經
2009/5/14 分類:新聞報導  作者:【2009/5/14 新東方官網】  點閱次數:879
   

按照高考(論壇)統一標準,只要能夠順利搞定出題者和改卷者,那麼作文的分數是一定居高不下的。從出題者的角度看,歷年高考考察的都是考生的最基本的交流能力,今年也不例外,因此考題會圍繞學生生活以及社會熱門話題進行內容上的考察;近年來,高考英語(論壇)作文也開始給與學生更多發揮主觀能動性的機會,於是觀點對立型題目,圖表分析性題目,以及建議意見型題目也層出不窮。從改卷者的角度講,只要做到所有要點無一遺漏,語言正確流暢,無大型語法錯誤,書寫工整,並且沒有大量超出字數或者字數不足,則最終考生的得分都在第一檔次。

好的作文三個要素,思維,結構,語言。以2007年江西高考英語作文試題為例,題目為What Can We Do for Our School? 旨在對學校發展提出建設性意見,可從以下四點中任選兩個要點進行闡述(1 美化校園環境; 2 增強學習氛圍;3 愛護學校設施; 4 關心他人)。就考題而言,純屬建設性考題,四選二的出題方法給與了學生更多的揚長避短的可能,使考生能夠發揮的更好,同時也避免了作文的雷同,也給大家在描述細節上足夠的空間發揮,屬比較科學的命題。此類題目的破解方法為三個步驟(就高考而言),即:what(建議是什麼),why(為什麼要提出建議),和how(具體怎麼操作)。可見,題目已經給出了關於what的提示,剩下學生要做的就是關於what的英文表達,以及why和how的個性發揮。以下為參考範文,涵蓋了四個建議,考生可針對自身情況,做出選擇性的取捨。
What Can We Do for Our School?
Every one of us, as a member of our school, is a part of the whole, and something should be called upon to make our school a better place with more beautiful sceneries, enhanced study atmosphere, better-maintained facilities, and greater caring environment. As to a student, study should come first and that explains why an enhanced atmosphere has become critically essential. What should be done first is to encourage students to organize their study groups so that those doing well in their studies can have the chance to help those in need helping themselves. While most of the students put their scores of exams in the first place, it is more important to let them know how to care others as well as themselves, not only in their studies, but also in other aspects of their life; after all, students are human beings born with flesh and blood rather than examination machines made of iron and steel. It is the caring environment that encourages students to take better care of class facilities such as desks, blackboards, computers and so on; it is the caring environment that nurtures a wonderful campus with greater ocean of flowers and trees, soul-touching songs from birds, and crystal-like river beneath the romantic bridges. We firmly believe that harder as we try, that day will soon arrive, and most importantly the future is now.

三、只見一葉障目,不見一片森林
定語從句中關係代詞who指人,是主格,在從句中做主語;whom是賓格,在從句中作賓語;whose是所有格,在從句中作定語,是定語從句中表示所屬關係的引導詞,意為“……的”,既可以指人,也可以指物。然而,有些老師只告訴學生whose意為“誰的”。如:
A. He is talking with the girl whose brother is my classmate. 他正在和那個弟弟是我同學的女孩說話。
B. This is the boy whose father is our English teacher. 這就是那個父親是我們英語教師的男孩。
可是,一旦whose出現在這樣的句字裏,學生就不知所云。如:
C. He lives in a house whose window opens to the south. 他住在一間窗戶朝南開的房子裏。(whose意為“房子的”)
I have just bought a new bike whose color is white. 我剛買了一輛白顏色的自行車。(whose意為“新自行車的”)
有些人認為whose的意思是“誰的”,只能表示人的所屬關係,這是一種錯誤的認識,應該糾正過來。
四、重視機械接受,缺乏機動靈活
that與which都可以修飾表示物的先行詞。於是,只要一見到表示物的先行詞,學生都用這兩個關係代詞引導。殊不知,有些情況下只能用that引導,不能用which;有些情況下只能用which引導,不能用that。
1. 先行詞為all、everything、something、anything、nothing時只能用that引導。
A. Please tell me all (that) you know. 請告訴我你所知道的一切。
B. I’ll tell you everything (that) I saw in the United States. 我會把在美國看到的事情告訴你。
C. I’d like to tell you something that will make you surprised. 我想告訴一件使你感到驚奇的事。
D. Is there anything (that) I can do for you? 有什麼需要幫忙的嗎?
E. There is nothing that has to be done today. 今天沒有任何事情可做。
2. 先行詞被數詞,最高級形容詞以及the very、the only、the last等修飾時只能用that引導。
A. The first student that put up hands was Zhang ping. 第一個舉手的是張萍。
B. Agriculture was the most important invention that led to the beginning of civilization. 農業是導致文明開始的最重要的發明。
C. This is the very pen (that) he is looking for. 這正是他在尋找的鋼筆。
D. That is the only English book (that) he bought from the bookstore yesterday. 這就是他昨天從書店買的唯一的那本英語書。
3.先行詞中既有人又有物時只能用that引導
A. Henry and his dog that appeared in street last week disappeared mysteriously in the forest yesterday. 亨利和他的小狗上周還在街上,昨天又神秘地消失在樹林裏。
B. we were deeply impressed by the teachers and schools that we had visited. 我們訪問過的老師和參觀過的學校給我們留下了深刻的印象。
4. 先行詞在主句中作表語,或關係代詞在從句中作表語時。
A. It is a dictionary that will help you a lot. 這是本對你很有幫助的字典。
B. He is no longer the man that he was in our university. 他再也不是我們大學時的他了。
5.關係代詞前有介詞時不用that。
This is the house in which I lived ten years ago. 這就是我十年前住過的房子。
6. 先行詞本身是that時不用that。
I will tell you that which he said yesterday. 我會告訴你他昨天說的話。
7.引導非限制性定語從句時不用that。
A. I have lost my mobile phone, which is bought by my father. 我丟了手機,那是我爸爸為我買的。
B. She entered a new vocational and technical college, which made her mother very happy. 她上了一所新職業技術學院,這使她母親非常高興。
五、拘泥課本知識,缺少訓練創新
講授定語從句時不能只局限於課本上的講解,還應讓學生拓寬知識面,多練習、多積累、多總結。比如象as,我們只知道它可以引導原因狀語從句、時間狀語從句和方式狀語從句。然而,有時它也可與“which”一樣,引導一個非限制性定語從句代表主句所要表達的內容。
A. She was ill yesterday, which made her mother very worried. 她昨天病了,這使她母親非常擔心。
B. She was patient towards the children, which made them very excited. 她很耐心地對待這些孩子,這使他們非常激動。
C. Eating too much, as is well known, is not good for our health. (as譯為“正如”) 正如大家所知道的那樣,吃的過多對我們的健康不好。
D.He opposed the idea, as could be expected. 正如所預料那樣,他反對這個觀點。

以上四個例子中,which與as均代表主句所表達的內容。
當然,定語從句包含的內容很多,這裏我們只是對教師教學過程中易忽視的、學生練習中常常出錯的一些典型問題簡單地作了分析和總結。如果大家能認識到並多加訓練,一定會克服這些困難,使定語從句不再成為學習英語的障礙。

摘要:本文針對高中學生學習當中遇到的語法問題,簡要分析了英語教學過程中定語從句不同的表現形式及先行詞、關係詞在從句中的語法功能,指出了學生概念和理解上的誤區,並從基本內涵、特殊細節、靈活機動等方面闡明了定語從句的基本規律。

關鍵字:定語從句先行詞關係詞語法功能
眾所周知,定語從句是英語學習中見得最多、用得最廣的從句之一。如何正確分析定語從句對於理清語法結構、理解句子含義、提高閱讀能力具有重要的意義。然而大多數英語老師在講授定語從句這個語法環節時,只是簡單地強調了它的基本用法而忽略了它的特殊情況及細節要求。因而,儘管學生在中學時都系統地學習過語法,然而遇到高職教材中各種包含定語從句的問題時卻常常束手無策、不知所云。為了使學生早點走出定語從句的誤區,現將這些問題小結如下:
一、重視構成形式,忽視內涵本質
有些教師在講授定語從句時,總是一味強調它的構成和形式,而對於它的內涵及與主句的關係卻講的很少。因而學生的理解是:只要先行詞是表示時間、地點和原因的名詞,引導定語從句的肯定是關係副詞when, where和why。其他先行詞則由關係代詞which和that


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